A comparison of DNA damage in testicular and proximal epididymal spermatozoa in obstructive azoospermia

Testicular and epididymal spermatozoa are used routinely for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to treat men with obstructive azoospermia. Little is known of the effects of obstruction and stasis on the DNA of these spermatozoa, particularly in the epididymis where spermatozoa have been retained for long periods.

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